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Biomarker Reminder

Drs. Evans and Rosenburg are Tufts University researchers interested in the measurable parameters that keep humans healthy and fit over an entire life span.  They have determined that the top four biomarkers are:

  1. Muscle Mass.  The percentage of your body that is made of muscle.
  2. Strength.  Can you use that muscle to push, pull, lift and carry.
  3. Basal Metabolic Rate.  The number of calories your body expends at rest.
  4. Body fat Percentage.  What percentage of your body is composed of fat.

The authors named these top four biomarkers, the decisive tetrad.  They are the prerequisites to maintaining healthy numbers in all of the other essential biomarkers.

  1. Aerobic Capacity
  2. Blood Sugar Tolerance
  3. Cholesterol / HDL ratio
  4. Blood Pressure
  5. Bone Density
  6. Internal Body Temperature Regulation

Drs. Evans and Rosenburg coined the term age related sarcopenia in their 1991 book Biomarkers.  It refers to the gradual loss of muscle mass that occurs as we age.  The keys to aging well, staying durable–no injuries, and maintaining control of all health parameters is maintaining or improving muscle mass / strength and eating properly.  An ongoing program of strength training and nutritional discipline are the foremost components of fitness and health.

Michael S. O’Hara, PT, OCS, CSCS

Aging Muscles and Exercise

Fast Reaction and Helpful Hormones

New technology has produced some surprising information on the cellular response of muscle to various types of exercise.  Super blood analyzers and computers have enabled scientists to monitor gene expression and hormonal release in muscle cells during and after sessions of exercise.  The information from this research is revolutionizing our understanding of optimal exercise prescription for health and longevity.  It appears that older individuals derive the most beneficial muscle cell response with fairly intense interval training sessions.  Please take the time to read Gretchen Reynolds article in the New York Times, The Best Exercise for Aging Muscles.

Dr. Martin Gibala, a professor at the kinesiology department at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario recently released an outstanding book, The One Minute Workout.  Dr. Gibala explains the science behind high intensity interval training (HIIT) and why it is safe and effective for older fitness participants.

Skeletal muscles produce beneficial biochemicals called myokines that stimulate a response in cells throughout the body.  Myokines are a fairly new scientific discovery and we have only recently begun to understand their remarkable effect on human physiology.  Myokines enhance blood vessel development, promote beneficial hormone levels, stimulate greater mitochondria production, and improve the metabolism of fat.  In the older individual, myokine levels are enhanced with strength training and high intensity interval training.

The best method of creating more of the beneficial myokine biochemistry is to consistently perform some progressive resistance training followed by a brief but intense interval training session.  This regimen of training is similar to that of track athletes involved in sprinting.  These athletes have high levels of muscle mass and very low body fat levels.

Michael S. O’Hara, PT, OCS, CSCS

Read the NY Times article here: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/23/well/move/the-best-exercise-for-aging-muscles.html

Advice From The Experts At Fenton Fitness

Tara Parker-Pope wrote a great article in the October 17, 2016 edition of The New York Times entitled “The 8 Health Habits Experts Say You Need in Your 20s.”  While I agree with some of these recommendations, we at Fenton Fitness and Fenton Physical Therapy have some suggestions of our own.

#10–Establish A Veggie And Protein Habit

One of the biggest deficits I see in many food logs is the lack of protein consumed.  We have been conditioned to snack on high carb/highly processed food, so eating more protein can be a difficult shift.  When I do see protein, it’s in the higher fat varieties of sausage, bacon, burgers, etc.  It would benefit younger individuals to start adding healthy doses of protein to their diets as soon as they are responsible for their own food preparation.  Shoot to have some form of lean protein as the base of your meal along with a couple of servings of vegetables. Once you have that base (taking up ½ to ⅔ of your plate), then you can add in whole grains, starchy carbs, fruits, dairy, healthy fats, etc.  Protein increases your metabolic rate more than any other nutrient, aids in recovery, helps build and maintain muscle mass, and much more.  We recommend 25-35% of total calories to come from protein, or 0.8-1gram/pound of body weight.  Most individuals should shoot for 4-8 servings of vegetables per day as well.

-Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, Pn1

To read the article, click on the link below:

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/10/16/well/live/health-tips-for-your-20s.html?_r=0

 

 

Advice From The Experts At Fenton Fitness

Tara Parker-Pope wrote a great article in the October 17, 2016 edition of The New York Times entitled “The 8 Health Habits Experts Say You Need in Your 20s.”  While I agree with some of these recommendations, we at Fenton Fitness and Fenton Physical Therapy have some suggestions of our own.

#9–Build Muscle

Much like strength, muscle mass is often not prioritized until it is largely too late.  Though you can still build muscle at an older age, it is much more difficult.  Muscle mass is highly correlated with strength which is correlated with power.  All of these tend to decline substantially at around age 30.  If you take advantage of your hormonal environment and your recovery abilities in your 20’s, you can stockpile a good amount of muscle for the rest of your life so that you can keep doing everything you want as you age.  More muscle also means a better and healthier metabolism which means less accumulation of unwanted body fat and overall better health. The best way to build muscle mass is through resistance training with gradual increases to volume (weight x reps x sets) over time along with a moderate to high protein intake.

-Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, Pn1

To read the article, click on the link below:

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/10/16/well/live/health-tips-for-your-20s.html?_r=0

 

 

Advice From The Experts At Fenton Fitness

Tara Parker-Pope wrote a great article in the October 17, 2016 edition of The New York Times entitled “The 8 Health Habits Experts Say You Need in Your 20s.”  While I agree with some of these recommendations, we at Fenton Fitness and Fenton Physical Therapy have some suggestions of our own.

#8—Eliminate Liquid Calories

One of the easiest ways to improve nutrition is to eliminate liquid calories from the diet.  Liquid calories for young people can come in many forms including coffee drinks, alcohol, pop, smoothies, juice, energy drinks, etc.  Most of these items offer very little nutritional benefit, are highly correlated with increased body fat, and don’t cause the same amount of satiety (feeling of fullness) of their calorie matched food equivalents.  Over the last decade working with individuals on their nutrition, I have seen magical transformations simply by eliminating calories you can drink.  Rather than wait for the body fat to pile on and your insulin sensitivity to be shot, avoid this pitfall early in life.  Opt instead for more water, plain tea, or diet soda if you can’t resist something sweet and fizzy.

-Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, Pn1

To read the article, click on the link below:

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/10/16/well/live/health-tips-for-your-20s.html?_r=0

 

 

Advice From The Experts At Fenton Fitness

Tara Parker-Pope wrote a great article in the October 17, 2016 edition of The New York Times entitled “The 8 Health Habits Experts Say You Need in Your 20s.”  While I agree with some of these recommendations, we at Fenton Fitness and Fenton Physical Therapy have some suggestions of our own.

#7—Go Easy On Caffeine And Sleep More.

Caffeine is one of the most widely used drugs in the United States.  We consume it in coffee, tea, pop, energy drinks, and sometimes even in pill form.  We often consume caffeine to help us feel more awake and alert or to elevate our performance.  Often times, this is done in an effort to undo the lethargic effects of inadequate sleep.  Unfortunately, many people are sensitive to caffeine.  These individuals can experience increased heart rate and/or blood pressure which puts extra strain on the cardiovascular system.  All the caffeine in the world will not make up for the poor hormonal profile which results from low levels of sleep and eventually leads to decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass.  In addition, the stimulating effects of caffeine wear off over time and your body requires more and more to create the same effect.  It is far better in your 20’s to establish a sleep and waking routine that allows you to consistently get 7-9 hours of sleep each night.  The well-formed habit will then be easier to maintain as you age and adopt a more complicated schedule with work, kids, a spouse, etc.

-Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, Pn1

To read the article, click on the link below:

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/10/16/well/live/health-tips-for-your-20s.html?_r=0

 

 

Advice From The Experts At Fenton Fitness

Tara Parker-Pope wrote a great article in the October 17, 2016 edition of The New York Times entitled “The 8 Health Habits Experts Say You Need in Your 20s.”  While I agree with some of these recommendations, we at Fenton Fitness and Fenton Physical Therapy have some suggestions of our own.

#5—Get Strong.

Too many people (women in particular) place high priority on being “toned” and, therefore, funnel training time toward aerobic-based cardio activities like jogging, the elliptical, and group aerobics classes.  Any added resistance comes in the way of foam coated dumbbells, weighing less than most purses, for 2-3 sets of 12-20 reps, training primarily muscle endurance.  There are so many problems with this approach, but I will just touch on the most significant.  First, if your goal is to appear “toned,” the best way to get there is to have more muscle and/or less body fat.  The most efficient way to accomplish this goal long term is to build up your strength, so that you can do more work in less time over the coming years and decades.  The more work you can perform, the more calories you will burn, and the easier it will be to keep body fat off.

Secondly, real strength training (when you lift more weight over time) is one of the best tools for maintaining muscle mass, tendon/ligament strength, and bone density.  There is a narrow window in your life, which tends to peak out in your mid to late 20s, when it is significantly easier to build and maintain bone density and accumulate more muscle mass.  These tissues, by and large, need to last you the remaining 6-8 decades of your life so don’t wait to not have them to start thinking about them.

Finally, strength is one of the best tools we have for maintaining a high quality of life and staying out of a nursing home.  It might not be top priority or sound sexy when you are 21, but it will be largely too late when you are 61.

To hear Tom and Barb Doescher’s advice, see the video here: https://youtu.be/ce_n4ZF6HPg

-Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, Pn1

 

To read the article, click on the link below:

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/10/16/well/live/health-tips-for-your-20s.html?_r=0

 

 

Advice From The Experts At Fenton Fitness

Tara Parker-Pope wrote a great article in the October 17, 2016 edition of The New York Times entitled “The 8 Health Habits Experts Say You Need in Your 20s.”  While I agree with some of these recommendations, we at Fenton Fitness and Fenton Physical Therapy have some suggestions of our own.

#5—Stay Mobile.

We’ve all heard the cliche “use it or lose it,” and when it comes to mobility, nothing applies more.  The human body is incredibly adaptable, and if you don’t regularly take your joints through their full range of motion, the ill begin to lose it.  Look at any infant or toddler and you will notice how mobile they are (though they lack lots of stability).  We all start off with this range of motion but many of us manage to lose it somewhere along the way.  Notice I said mobility and not flexibility.  Mobility requires that you can control your body through these full ranges of motion.  The best way to maintain mobility is to utilize as large a range of motion as possible when doing things like squats, lunges, push ups, pull ups, etc.  Also, try incorporating different rolls, crawls, and get ups to keep things moving and stabilizing properly.

To view a client performing a Turkish Get Up which is great for mobility, click here: https://youtu.be/bQl8P6YuGMw

-Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, Pn1

To read the article, click on the link below:

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/10/16/well/live/health-tips-for-your-20s.html?_r=0

 

 

The 2017 Australia Open Tennis tournament had an impressive finish.  At the age of 36, Roger Federer became the men’s champion, and 35 year old Serena Williams defeated her 36 year old sister, Venus Williams to become the women’s champion.  In the world of professional tennis, a mid-thirties champion is a rarity and to have it happen in both the men’s and women’s divisions is a sign of things to come.  Rehabilitation and conditioning science have improved the results athletes can achieve in the gym.  Athletes are staying healthier by eating better and training smarter.  Take a look at some other recent examples:

Oksana Chusotivina (photo by Zelda F. Scott)

Tom Brady, 39 years old. The quarterback for the New England Patriots will be leading his team in Superbowl LI.  He is confident he can continue to compete for another five years.

Drew Brees, 38 years old.  The starting quarterback for the New Orleans Saints feels he can play for several more years.

Kristin Armstrong, 43 years old.  Won a gold medal in cycling at the Rio Olympics at the age of 42.  This type of success is amazing in a competition that greatly favors youth.

Dara Torres, 49 years old.  This twelve-time Olympic swimmer medallist competed at 41 years of age and won a silver medal in three events at the 2008 Summer Olympics.

Oksana Chusotivina, 41 years oldOksana is gymnast from Uzbekistan that competed against teenage gymnasts at the Rio Olympics.

Meb Keflezighi, 40 years old.  Competed in the Marathon at the Summer Olympics in Rio.

These performances illustrate how proper training and nutrition can produce a high level of performance in athletes thought to be too old to compete.  We are all going to get older.  It does not mean we are going to get weaker, slower, and more sedentary.

Michael S. O’Hara, PT, OCS, CSCS

Advice From The Experts At Fenton Fitness

Tara Parker-Pope wrote a great article in the October 17, 2016 edition of The New York Times entitled “The 8 Health Habits Experts Say You Need in Your 20s.”  While I agree with some of these recommendations, we at Fenton Fitness and Fenton Physical Therapy have some suggestions of our own.

#4—If it hurts, stop.

 

The presence of pain neurologically alters how you move.  Pain will muck up your neuromuscular system and lead to even greater problems after the pain is gone.  We see this in physical therapy patients all of the time.  The limp persists after the knee pain is gone.  The lower back pain resolves, but the patient will be unable to engage the gluteal muscles or fire the hamstrings.  Exercising while experiencing pain can cause other orthopedic issues that are far worse than the original problem.  Be smart, listen to your body, resolve the pain, and then get back to training.

-Mike O’Hara, Physical Therapist for the last 32 years.  Fitness coach and board certified orthopedic specialist 

To read the article, click on the link below:

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/10/16/well/live/health-tips-for-your-20s.html?_r=0

 

 

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