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nutrition

Calculating Nutritional Needs

If you are hoping to see serious changes in your weight and body composition, then nutrition is going to play a huge role.  There are many parts to a solid nutrition plan.  For the purposes of weight gain/loss, we must look at overall energy intake.  A chronic surplus of calories consumed leads to weight gain, while a chronic deficit leads to weight loss.  But most people want to do more than to lose or gain weight.  Most individuals want to gain or maintain lean body mass (muscle, bone, organs, tendons/ligaments, water) while decreasing body fat.  For this, we need to focus on protein.  Nutrition needs to be based on performance goals, the types of activities you enjoy doing, your lifestyle, and your food preferences.  Adherence to a program is huge, so it’s important to pick a nutritional approach that fits within your lifestyle.

Calories: We must first start with calculating caloric needs.  First, determine a good target body weight (TBW).  This should be based on a healthy/realistic body composition range.  For men, this is typically 10-20% body fat, for women it tends to be 18-30%.  A good trainer can help you determine this number/range.  Once you have your TBW, we must determine your activity multiplier.  It is important to be brutally honest here, odds are you are 1 lower than you think.  The multipliers are:

Very Inactive & Older: Multiplier is 8.  This is for anybody who never does anything physical day to day.  They have a long commute, office job, and engage in little unplanned movement from day to day.  They are also over the age of 55.

Very Inactive: Multiplier is 9.  Same as above but for individuals under the age of 55.

Inactive: Multiplier is 10.  This for anyone who while mostly sedentary during the day, does get up and walk around or move several times per day.  This can also apply to someone who doesn’t move much during the day, but has a standing desk.

Moderately Active: Multiplier is 11.  This individual is never sitting for more than 90 minutes straight and moves around several times per day.  They also engage in leisurely activities a few times each week such as walking or casual bike riding.

Active: Multiplier is 12.  This individual sits no more than 60 minutes at a time during the day, and engages in leisurely activity 5-7 days per week.

Very Active: Multiplier is 13.  This is for individuals who have a very physically demanding job such as construction, landscaping, assembly line work, etc.

Hard Gainer: Multiplier is 14.  This is reserved only for those individuals who are trying to gain wait, have a very low body fat percentage (below the norms listed), and has never been able to gain wait.

The final thing we must determine is how many moderate to intense training hours we are going to perform each week.   Again, be realistic.  Don’t count warm up time, and if you think you are going to train 3-4 hours per week, use the low number for weight loss and the high number for weight gain.  Here is what the equation looks like:

(TBW x (activity multiplier + training hours))=estimated caloric needs

Here are two examples to help you work through this:

200lb male, with a target body weight of 185lbs who is inactive, and trains 3 hours/week.

(185 x (10+3))=2405 calories/day

150lb female, with a target body weight of 140lbs who is very active and trains 2 hours/week.  (140 x (13+2))= 2100 calories/day.

Protein:  Now that calories have been determined, we must determine protein intake.  Calories will dictate weight gain/loss.  Protein will help preserve or increase lean body mass.  Protein intake should be set at 0.72 up to 1g per pound of target body weight (TBW).  So, for our 2 examples listed earlier, we would have the following:

200lb male with a TBW of 185lbs.  0.72 x 185= 133.2g

The low end would be 133 grams of protein, and we could go up to 185 grams reasonably.

150lb female with TBW of 140lbs. 0.72 x 140= 100.8g

This puts our low end at 101 grams of protein with the upper reasonable range of 140g.

There are 4 calories in 1 gram of protein.  This will come into play when we set our carbohydrate intake later.   Our male would be targeting 133-185g of protein per day which equates to 532-740 calories coming from protein.  For our female, we have targets of 101-140g of protein each day with 404-560 calories coming from protein:

Fat: Fat is essential for optimal hormonal health and should be consumed from a variety of sources.  There is no good or bad fat (outside of trans fats), we should simply seek a variety of fat sources.  Fats (just like carbohydrates) have a huge healthy range you can pick from based on food preference and tolerance.  Fat should make up 20% of your calories at a minimum, but can go as high as 1g per pound of target body weight (TBW).  Using our previous examples:

200lb male, with a TBW of 185lbs.  Calories projected at 2405/day.   0.2 x 2405=481 calories coming from fat.  There are 9 calories in each gram of fat.  So, we take 481/9=53 grams of fat each day for the lowest possible number.  The upper end would be 185g or 1665 calories from fat.  Our fat range could be 53g (481 calories) up to 185g (1665 calories).

150lb female, with TBW of 140lbs.  Calories projected at 2100/day.   0.2 x 2100=420 calories from fat.  420/9=47 g of fat.  Her low end would be 47g (420 calories from fat) up to 140g (1260 calories from fat).

Carbohydrates:  While carbohydrates are not technically essential in our diet, your brain prefers them for fuel, and intense exercise tends to be best fueled through their inclusion.  However, for the recreational gym goer who trains 2-4 days per week, the amount of carbohydrate intake probably has minimal bearing on progress.  Food preference, as well as how your body tolerates different levels should be your main determinant in setting levels here.  To determine carbohydrate levels, we simply take your remaining calories (after setting protein and fat intakes) and a lot them to carbohydrate intake.  There are 4 calories in 1 gram of carbohydrate.  So again, using our previous examples, we would have the following:

200lb male with TBW of 185lbs.  2405 calories per day, sets protein at 0.72/lb of TBW.  This equals 133g of Protein (532 calories).  This guy loves fat so he sets his fat at 1g per pound of TBW.  This would be 185g of fat (1665 calories).  So 2405-(532+1665)=208 remaining calories.  208/4=52 grams of carbohydrate.  Same guy may also choose to up protein to 1g/lb of TBW.  This would give us 185g protein (740 calories).  Let’s say he loves pasta, bread, etc.  So, he sets his fat to the minimum of 53 grams (481 calories).  In this example we have 2405-(740+481)=1184 calories from carbohydrates.  1184/4=296 grams of carbohydrate per day.  There is an endless combination of macronutrients here.

Conclusion: There are many approaches that can be used when determining nutritional needs.  The most important variable is adherence.  Can you stick to this approach long term?  Data suggests that both very low carbohydrate diets (under 100g) and very low fat diets (under 15% of total calories) are difficult to maintain beyond 6 months.  Do the foods you eat make you feel energized, taste good, and satisfy you?  These are all things that should be considered.  We want to emphasize whole foods, while not avoiding any food group entirely unless you have a proven medical condition.  These equations are to be used to help you set baseline numbers.  For weight loss, we should target 0.5% up to 1.5% body weight lost each week.  For weight gain, we should target 0.25% up to 1% body weight gain each month.  If your rates fall below or above those respective rates, we simply need to increase/decrease caloric intake accordingly.  For help setting your numbers schedule your nutrition consultation by reaching out at jeff@fentonfitness.com or calling 810-750-0351.  Nutrition coaching is available for those that require more education and/or accountability.

-Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, CFSC, Pn1

 

In the April 2018 issue, Mike O’Hara discusses the benefits of the farmer’s walk exercise. Jeff Tirrell tells you how to reduce injury to your ligaments and tendons, and tips are given for getting back out into the garden.

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In the February issue of our newsletter, Mike O’Hara discusses ways to improve hip mobility and strength.  Read Jeff Tirrell’s article on why dairy products may actually be good for you.  Having back pain doesn’t mean you can’t have a fitness program.

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In the January 2018 issue, Mike O’Hara focuses on strengthening your hamstrings.  Exercises to make your hamstrings stronger, not longer are given along with video demonstration.  Jeff Tirrell tells us how to make incremental changes in our diets to see positive changes, and the spotlight is on Fenton Fitness member, Robin Forstat–a nationally ranked power lifter.
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Biomarker Reminder

Drs. Evans and Rosenburg are Tufts University researchers interested in the measurable parameters that keep humans healthy and fit over an entire life span.  They have determined that the top four biomarkers are:

  1. Muscle Mass.  The percentage of your body that is made of muscle.
  2. Strength.  Can you use that muscle to push, pull, lift and carry.
  3. Basal Metabolic Rate.  The number of calories your body expends at rest.
  4. Body fat Percentage.  What percentage of your body is composed of fat.

The authors named these top four biomarkers, the decisive tetrad.  They are the prerequisites to maintaining healthy numbers in all of the other essential biomarkers.

  1. Aerobic Capacity
  2. Blood Sugar Tolerance
  3. Cholesterol / HDL ratio
  4. Blood Pressure
  5. Bone Density
  6. Internal Body Temperature Regulation

Drs. Evans and Rosenburg coined the term age related sarcopenia in their 1991 book Biomarkers.  It refers to the gradual loss of muscle mass that occurs as we age.  The keys to aging well, staying durable–no injuries, and maintaining control of all health parameters is maintaining or improving muscle mass / strength and eating properly.  An ongoing program of strength training and nutritional discipline are the foremost components of fitness and health.

Michael S. O’Hara, PT, OCS, CSCS

FAT LOSS NUTRITION QUIZ

FAT LOSS NUTRITION QUIZ

The primary goal of most fitness clients is altering body composition.  They want to lose fat and gain muscle and they know they need to change dietary habits.  Everyone knows the optimal nutritional menu choices.  The stream of weight loss dietary advice has been endless.  Fitness magazines, newspapers, Dr. Oz, Oprah, and hundreds of websites have been serving up dietary fat loss advice for decades.  I like to use my fat loss nutrition quiz to prove my point.  If you can pass this quiz, you know all you need to know in regards to eating for fat loss.  The question that needs to be answered is “What would motivate you to make changes in your eating habits?”

1. Eating a fresh green salad every day.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
2. Eating a fresh green salad with half a bottle of Ranch Dressing slathered on top.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
3. Eating nothing but salad.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
4. Eating a serving of fresh fruit every day.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
5. Eating Fruit Loops every day.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
6. Having a four ounce glass of wine with dinner.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
7. Having a fourteen ounce tumbler of wine with dinner.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
8. Eating breakfast every morning.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
9. Waking up in the middle of the night and eating.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
10. Consuming 120 grams of protein every day.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
11. Consuming 12 grams of protein every day.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
12. Having an apple as a snack.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
13. Having an apple pie as a snack.  
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
14. Planning and preparing meals ahead of time.  
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
15. Eating whatever is in the refrigerator.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
16. Keeping a daily food log.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
17. Keeping Oreos in the house.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
18. Consuming 1600 calories a day-women, and 2200 calories a day-men.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
19. Having absolutely no idea of how many calories you consume in a day.  
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
20. Eating foods of as many different colors as possible.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
21. Eating only brown, beige, and black colored food.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
22. Meals made exclusively from fresh produce.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
23. Meals made from the contents of a cardboard box.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
24. Post training session rehydration with water.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good
25. Post training session rehydration with beer.
Very Bad          Bad          Good          Very Good

I have never had anyone fail this test.  The “What do I eat?’ answer is really that simple.  Do not fret over dietary minutia–clean up your big nutritional mistakes.  Do some planning and preparing and exercise consistently.  The results will follow.

Michael S. O’Hara, PT, OCS, CSCS

Think About This

The Latest Science on the Prevention of Alzheimer’s

Over the last 30 years, more than two hundred experimental drugs have failed to produce any success in the fight against Alzheimer’s.  It does not appear we are going to have a pharmaceutical for the treatment of Alzheimer’s any time in the near future.  A recent *article in the April issue of Scientific American discusses a treatment option that does appear to work.  This is currently our only hope in the fight against this terrible disease.  The good news is the treatment that prevents cognitive decline helps with so many other problems.

The study’s researchers demonstrated that an interventional program of exercise, proper nutrition, and cognitive training produced significant improvements in brain function.  The **Finnish Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER study) enrolled 1260 men and women between ages 60 and 77.  Over the course of two years, participants demonstrated improved cognitive test scores in processing speed (up 150%), executive function (up 83%), and complex memory (up 40%).

The exercise program in this study was not complex or time consuming.  The routines were developed by physical therapists and performed four or five days a week.  The exercise sessions involved strength training, balance skills, and aerobic activities.  As the participants became fitter, their training regimens were progressed–more challenging activities, more resistance, and/or more volume.  The time spent in training was four to five hours a week.

If your goal is to maintain or improve cognitive capacity and remain independent, then the prescription is a consistent routine of exercise.  Take the time to read the article, lace up your sneakers, and make a progressive program of fitness a lifelong habit.

* A Rare Success Against Alzheimer’s, Scientific American, April 2017

** The FINGER study, Alzheimer Prevention. Download the article here: http://r.search.yahoo.com/_ylt=A0LEViMTIfZYurkAQNsnnIlQ;_ylu=X3oDMTBybGY3bmpvBGNvbG8DYmYxBHBvcwMyBHZ0aWQDBHNlYwNzcg–/RV=2/RE=1492554131/RO=10/RU=http%3a%2f%2fwww.alzheimersprevention.org%2fdownloadables%2fFINGER-study-report-by-ARPF.pdf/RK=0/RS=fHWCrTAi9LEEDrH5jWfmRvAI7LU-

Michael S. O’Hara, PT, OCS, CSCS

PDFEver wonder how many sets and repetitions of an exercise you should perform? Mike O’Hara, PT helps answer this question in his article “Old School Effective”. Jeff Tirrell discusses the importance of changing only one element of your fitness program at a time in order to determine its effective in “Be The Tortoise”. Exercise description and demonstration of single leg hip hinges are included in “One Leg At A Time”. Don’t forget to check out the youtube video that goes with the article.

 

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The holidays offer ample opportunity to eat, drink, and be merry with family and friends. Unfortunately, this may not be in the best interest of our health or our waistline. We will continue to feature nutrition tips over the next few weeks to help minimize the damage during the holiday season and avoid feeling so guilty come January 1st.

Bring a dish and skip the condimentsimages

We all know that our family and friends are not always as health conscious as we are. An easy way to take control of what is available at your next holiday feast is to bring something yourself. Opt for something that is traditionally higher in calories and make it using lower calorie alternatives. For desserts, calorie free sweeteners such as Splenda or Stevia can be used. Instead of using butter or oil to grease a pan, use calorie free cooking spray instead. Every calorie you spare on a dish you bring will help to offset your intake. Avoiding condiments and dressings is huge as well. While many don’t contain too many calories in a serving, most of us tend to eat far more than the suggested serving of 1-2 Tbsp. If you insist on dipping or pouring something on your food, opt for things that have mustard or vinegar as a base as these items are both calorie free.

-Jeff Tirrell, B.S., CSCS, Pn1

The holidays offer ample opportunity to eat, drink, and be merry with family and friends. Unfortunately, this may not be in the best interest of our health or our waistline. We will continue to feature nutrition tips over the next few weeks to help minimize the damage during the holiday season and avoid feeling so guilty come January 1st.

Eat slowly and use a smaller plate

Many of us look forward to Holiday dinners for much of the year. We typically have 1-2 dishes that only come around this time of year and we can’t wait to get our hands on them. There is nothing inherently problematic about indulging in some calorie dense high fat/high carb foods on occasion (assuming we are eating well the rest of the time and a proper exercise routine is in place). The problem occurs when, instead of eating a sliver of pumpkin pie, we opt for half the pie. We can do two very simple things to avoid this: altering the size of our plate and slowing down the pace in which we eat.

Choosing a smaller plate size has repeatedly proven to be successful at reducing caloric intake. Psychologically, we feel like we are getting more food by seeing a full plate. You may still end up going up for that second serving but the overall intake will be less.

Slow down! Actually enjoy some conversation with family and friends rather than shoveling food down your throat as quickly as possible. It takes roughly 20 minutes for your stomach to signal to your brain that you are full. Give yourself 25-30 minutes to finish a plate of food before deciding to go up for seconds.

-Jeff Tirrell, B.S., CSCS, Pn1

Tortoise in Meadow

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