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8 Reasons Why You’re Sore–#3 Protein

One of the most common complaints I get from new trainees (most often these come from middle aged men who are just now getting back into strength training) is that of being sore all of the time.  Many people associate muscular soreness with getting a good workout or getting results.  However, the research does not necessarily support this thought process.  Muscles tend to get sore anytime a new stimulus is introduced (new exercise, activity, etc), but this should typically subside within 2-3 weeks of starting the activity.  Anytime a new exercise is introduced, it is expected that some level of soreness will occur.  However, a good program will actually have an introduction phase where weight and volume are intentionally reduced in order to avoid excessive soreness, as this can negatively impact future workouts.  If you are chronically sore beyond the initial 2-3 weeks of starting a strength training program, there are eight areas that you may need to pay attention to.

Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, CSFC, Pn1

#3–Protein

Protein is responsible for making up at least part of every structure in all humans.  It is responsible for the repair of muscles, tendons, ligaments, and organs.  Protein is most commonly found in animal products such as meats, eggs, and dairy.  Despite popular belief, vegetarian dairy substitutes (such as almond milk) tend to be a poor source of protein.  Soy and pea along with a variety of vegetable-based protein powders are the best bet for vegans to increase protein intake.  For optimal recovery, protein intakes should range from 0.62 grams per pound of bodyweight up to 1 gram per pound of body weight.  For very lean individuals who are very active or trying to lose body fat, amounts may need to be even higher.  Protein intakes of up to 2 grams per pound of bodyweight have been studied and found to be safe in healthy individuals.

8 Reasons Why You’re Sore–#2 Hydration

One of the most common complaints I get from new trainees (most often these come from middle aged men who are just now getting back into strength training) is that of being sore all of the time.  Many people associate muscular soreness with getting a good workout or getting results.  However, the research does not necessarily support this thought process.  Muscles tend to get sore anytime a new stimulus is introduced (new exercise, activity, etc), but this should typically subside within 2-3 weeks of starting the activity.  Anytime a new exercise is introduced, it is expected that some level of soreness will occur.  However, a good program will actually have an introduction phase where weight and volume are intentionally reduced in order to avoid excessive soreness, as this can negatively impact future workouts.  If you are chronically sore beyond the initial 2-3 weeks of starting a strength training program, there are eight areas that you may need to pay attention to.

Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, CSFC, Pn1

#2–Hydration

Hydration or water intake is probably one of the easiest ways to improve health, recovery, and performance.  For most people in the general population, we want to focus on calorie free fluid with minimum caffeine (this means water).  Water acts as a solvent, transporter, catalyst, lubricant, temperature regulator, mineral source, and assists in anabolic processes.  Water helps bring nutrients to cells and removes waste.  It is used in the production of proteins and glycogen, helps facilitate and speed up many chemical reactions (many wouldn’t occur without it.  It also lubricates joints and acts as a shock absorber for our eyes and the spine.  Water intake should range from 1 Liter per 1000 calories consumed (need to know your caloric consumption) up to ½ ounce per pound of bodyweight.  In very hot or humid conditions or when activity is very high, larger amounts may be needed.

Our June issue brings information on preventing neck pain by strengthening your neck.  Mike O’Hara describes and demonstrates in a video exercises that will help strengthen the muscles of your neck.  In another article, Mike tells how grip strength can be a predictor of early death in some patients.  Be sure to read Jeff Tirrell’s article on performance based training.

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8 Reasons Why You’re Sore–#1: Sleep

One of the most common complaints I get from new trainees (most often these come from middle aged men who are just now getting back into strength training) is that of being sore all of the time.  Many people associate muscular soreness with getting a good workout or getting results.  However, the research does not necessarily support this thought process.  Muscles tend to get sore anytime a new stimulus is introduced (new exercise, activity, etc), but this should typically subside within 2-3 weeks of starting the activity.  Anytime a new exercise is introduced, it is expected that some level of soreness will occur.  However, a good program will actually have an introduction phase where weight and volume are intentionally reduced in order to avoid excessive soreness, as this can negatively impact future workouts.  If you are chronically sore beyond the initial 2-3 weeks of starting a strength training program, there are eight areas that you may need to pay attention to.

Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, CSFC, Pn1

#1–Sleep

Sleep is one of the most neglected areas of health, fitness, and recovery.  It can have some of the most dramatic impacts on improving any of these areas, but can also be one of the most difficult areas to improve. We only have 24 hours in a day and we must divide this time between sleeping, eating, work, family/social time, leisure activities, and training.  Your priorities will dictate which areas you spend the most time on.  One thing that is often overlooked however, is that increased sleep (both quantity and quality) can help in many of these areas.  It has been shown that better sleep improves cognitive function (better function at work), makes you more efficient, improves mood (better for friends and family), improves hormonal profiles (better for health), and improves performance and recovery.  If you struggle to get enough sleep, try to set a better schedule for yourself to allow for earlier bedtime and/or a later wake time.  If you struggle with sleep quality, try to establish better sleep hygiene practices.  Common recommendations are to sleep 7-9 hours per night (kids need more like 9-12 hours/night).  However, some research suggests that hard training individuals may need 9-10 hours of sleep for optimal results.

100 Steps Per Minute

Step Cadence and Fitness

Exercise researchers have been studying gait cadence for years.  A cadence of 80 steps a minute is a stroll.  100 steps a minute is considered a brisk walk.  At 130-140 steps a minute, you move into jog or slow run.  Recent high tech evaluations of gait cadence has been able to predict the onset of dementia in older people.  For many people, walking is their primary form of exercise.  Gretchen Reynolds has written an excellent *article on the walking cadence that produces optimal health benefits.

A compilation of many studies has found that 100 steps per minute is the sweet spot for walkers under the age of sixty.  The data for older walkers has yet to be fully evaluated, but it appears a slightly slower cadence is a good goal.

I like evaluations of performance.  Evaluations tell you if you are getting better or getting worse.  The human body is in a constant state of adaptation and never stays the same.  Keep track of your cadence by counting your steps for twenty seconds and then multiplying by four.  Use that information to track your fitness level.  Ideally it should get easier to walk, at faster pace over a greater period of time.

15 x 4 = 60 Pokey Joe.

20 x 4 = 80 Still too slow.

25 x 4 = 100 Good job.

Michael S. O’Hara, PT, OCS, CSCS

*Walk Briskly for Your Health.  About 100 Steps a Minute, Gretchen Reynolds, New York Times, June 27, 2018

View: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/27/well/walk-health-exercise-steps.html

Lumbar Spine Fitness Guidelines

Janet injured her lower back while exercising in her local gym.  She was taking a trip through her favorite “ab ciruit” when she felt a snap in her lumbar spine.  The next day she was unable to stand up straight.  Two weeks later, we met her in physical therapy for her initial evaluation.  She was ready to return to her fitness program three weeks later.  Janet was very concerned she may suffer another exercise induced back injury and requested some advice.  These are the simple guidelines I give to physical therapy low back patients returning to exercise.

Mobilize the Thoracic Spine and Hips

Movement is supposed to happen at the thoracic spine and hips.  Unfortunately, prolonged sitting, deconditioning, and poor training choices tends to restrict mobility in these areas.  If you are unable to rotate and extend at the hips and thoracic spine, your brain will use other joints to make up for the deficit.  Pushing extra rotation and extension forces into your lumbar spine is never a good thing.  Dedicate some training time to improving thoracic spine rotation and hip extension / internal rotation range of motion.  If you sit for a living, work on your mobility everyday.

Make the Lumbar Spine Stable

Most fitness clients believe that more lumbar spine movement is a good thing.  They perform toe touches, back twists, and the many breeds of up and down dogs.  Unfortunately, greater lumbar spine range of motion is positively correlated with a higher incidence of lower back pain.  The incidence of low back pain escalates even further when we move those hypermobile lumbar spine segments against a resistance.  What does keep lumbar spines healthy is high level of lumbar spine strength endurance.  Can you hold the lumbar spine stable and prevent movement from occurring at the pelvis and five lumbar vertebrae.  Your lumbar spine stays happy and healthy when you focus training efforts on planks, roll outs, crawls, carries, and Pallof press exercises.  Avoid the sit ups, crunches, sidebends, toes to bar, and other assorted “ab” exercises that create lots lumbar spine motion.

Avoid Muscle Isolation Exercise Activities

The muscles that support the lumbar spine work together as part of a neurally connected team.  Training activities that support better communication between the team members will create optimal performance.  The neuroanatomy saying is “What fires together, wires together”.  Ditch the “upper abs”, “lower abs” baloney and sprint away from anyone who trys to strap you into a machine in an effort to “isolate your obliques”.

On her discharge from therapy, Janet was unable to perform a single roll out and fatigue fairly quickly with a twelve pound suitcase carry.  For the last three months, she has followed the guidelines and her progress has been excellent.   Janet is currently performing a suitcase carry with fifty pounds and has worked up to ten full reps on an ab wheel roll out.

Michael S. O’Hara, PT, OCS, CSCS

The Cumulative Effect of Activity

Many people are put off from starting an exercise routine because they are overwhelmed by the time commitment they feel is necessary.  Fitness magazines, exercise experts, and everything on youtube preaches–

–30 minutes of cardio three times a week

–45 minutes of strength training twice a week

–150 minutes of exercise per week

Most of this well-intentioned advice is wrong.  Nearly everyone can derive significant benefit from short bouts of fitness activity that are performed on a consistent basis.  Walk for five minutes twice a day.  A simple routine of two strengthening exercises will take no more than five minutes.  Climb the stairs in your home three times once a day.  Practice getting up and down of the floor.  Stay consistent with a routine of short exercise bouts and you will be healthier and stay independent for a lifetime.

More research has demonstrated the beneficial effect of short exercise sessions interspersed throughout the day.  Read the March 28, 2018, New York Times article by Gretchen Reynolds, Those 2-Minute Walk Breaks?  They Add Up.  View the article: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/28/well/move/walking-exercise-minutes-death-longevity.html

Mike O’Hara, PT, OCS, CSCS

In our May issue, Mike O’Hara discusses the importance of walking.  If you have pain or difficulty with walking, there are things that help.  Mike demonstrates some exercises to get you ready.  Be sure to read Jeff Tirrell’s article on squatting, and read about Afterburn–a new class at Fenton Fitness that uses heart rate monitors while training.

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World’s Best Diet Part 9–Fasting

If you google the word diet, you will come up with over 200,000 results.  Every week, month, year, and decade a new study or article comes out claiming certain foods are killing us, or that some other food or nutritional approach will lead us to the promised land.  Unfortunately, articles are written to create traffic, so scientific research is often misreported or spun to sell magazines or generate website traffic.  The truth is, there are many ways to skin a cat.  All of the evidence on nutrition (in regards to weight loss) points to two undeniable truths.  First, that dietary adherence is king.  It doesn’t matter how perfect or evidence based a nutrition plan is, if you can’t follow it, it doesn’t matter.  Before starting any eating plan, you must ask yourself how easy it will be to maintain long term.  Second, you must achieve an energy deficit to lose weight (eat less energy than you expend each day).  Though “calories in, calories out” may be slightly over simplified, it is still the underlying rule to any weight loss success.   For any weight loss plan to work, you must consistently follow the pla, and you must be in a caloric deficit.  This series will highlight the nine most popular current nutrition approaches, and the pros and cons of each.

Fasting

Claims: There are a ton of different approaches to fasting.  The most common are ADF (alternate day fasting) and IF (intermittent fasting).  ADF simply means that one day you eat nothing, followed by a day of standard eating.  IF is a restricted eating format where you don’t eat for a given period of time (16 hours being the most popular) followed by a feeding window where you eat regularly (8 hours in the 16 hour example above).  Every person fasts when they sleep by default, the various fasting protocols simply extend this fast one way or the other.  Purported benefits include improved insulin sensitivity, improved heart health, weight loss, better brain function, and some eve claim better performance.

Reality:  There is nothing magical about fasting.  When calories are controlled for fasting protocols seem to offer many of the health benefits that other diets show (improved heart health, improved insulin sensitivity, weight loss, etc.).  One unique potential benefit is that of life extension.  Several animal studies have shown this to be the case, but more research is needed.

Pros:No off limit foods.  Even without tracking food directly many people will eat less food by reducing the window of time in which they eat food.  This is probably one of the simplest plans to follow in concept.  If you can tell the time you can follow this plan.

Cons: No emphasis on food quality, or protein intake.  May not get enough vitamins and minerals in if you aren’t sure to emphasize getting a large amount of whole and unprocessed foods since you aren’t eating on a daily basis.  May be harder to maintain muscle mass (though research hasn’t shown this yet).  Could lead to binge eating behaviors during the feeding window in some individuals.  If this is you, this plan is not right for you.

Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, CFSC, Pn1

World’s Best Diet Part 8–The Mediterranean Diet

If you google the word diet, you will come up with over 200,000 results.  Every week, month, year, and decade a new study or article comes out claiming certain foods are killing us, or that some other food or nutritional approach will lead us to the promised land.  Unfortunately, articles are written to create traffic, so scientific research is often misreported or spun to sell magazines or generate website traffic.  The truth is, there are many ways to skin a cat.  All of the evidence on nutrition (in regards to weight loss) points to two undeniable truths.  First, that dietary adherence is king.  It doesn’t matter how perfect or evidence based a nutrition plan is, if you can’t follow it, it doesn’t matter.  Before starting any eating plan, you must ask yourself how easy it will be to maintain long term.  Second, you must achieve an energy deficit to lose weight (eat less energy than you expend each day).  Though “calories in, calories out” may be slightly over simplified, it is still the underlying rule to any weight loss success.   For any weight loss plan to work, you must consistently follow the pla, and you must be in a caloric deficit.  This series will highlight the nine most popular current nutrition approaches, and the pros and cons of each.

Mediterranean

 

Claims: This diet emphasizes plant based foods such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes and nuts.  You are encouraged to use oils instead of butter, spices/herbs instead of salt, limiting red meat to 2x/month, and moderate to low red wine consumption.  The claims are that you will see reduced mortality rates, lower many cancer risks, and improved heart health.

Reality: This is another sensible eating plan that has been around for a long time.  Emphasizing whole foods such as fruits, veggies, whole grains, nuts,  and beans should be a no brainer.  There is a body of literature (albeit correlative in nature) that shows majority of health markers improve on this style of eating plan.

Pros: Fiber rich diet focusing on veggies, fruits, grains, olive oil, nuts/seeds, and legumes.  Encourages the social aspect of eating, and doesn’t directly forbid any food.

Cons: de-emphasizes lean protein consumption  by recommending fish/poultry only be eaten 2x/week, and read meat less than 2x/month.  Following this approach could lead to inadequate protein intakes.  No emphasis on food quantities, which may lead to some people over eating these “healthy” foods.

Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, CFSC, Pn1

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