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Progression Know How

Hinge Patterns

If I could kill a word it would be “workout”.  People who are into fitness love to talk about working out, but seldom do you hear people talk about training or practicing movements.  “Workout” tends to infer any form of structured exercise with the sole purpose of expending energy or making you tired.  It focuses on today and perhaps a feeling (tired, sore, or getting a pump, etc.), but has no thought of tomorrow.   Our focus at Fenton Fitness is always on training or practicing movements.  The focus is always on the future–reducing injury risk, becoming more durable, performing better at sports or life, or just feeling better.  Our focus is on skill acquisition, not feeling tired.  Just imagine if we treated education the way we treat exercise.  Think of the difficulty of  learning a new subject every day, rarely repeating something, with the sole purpose of making it difficult.  That would be crazy, yet that is more and more of what we see in the fitness industry.  In workouts, exercises tend to change just for the sake of changing.  In training, the movements are not random and serve a direct purpose, and are therefore performed for a minimum of 3-4 weeks.  We progress these movements by performing them with more control, increasing the number of sets or reps, increasing load, or reducing rest intervals.  Here are some benchmarks that we like to use with some basic exercises to do before progressing on to the next movement.

Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, CSFC, Pn1

Hinge Patterns

KB Deadlift- Goal of 10 reps with 40kg (88lbs)

Single Leg Reaching Deadlift- Goal of 10 reps/leg with perfect form

Single Leg Deadlift- Goal of 10 reps/leg with 50% of bodyweight

Trap Bar Deadlift- Goal of 2x bodyweight (men) or 1.5x bodyweight (women) for 3-5 reps

See video demonstration of these exercises here: Hinge Pattern Video

Progression Know How

Squat Patterns

If I could kill a word it would be “workout”.  People who are into fitness love to talk about working out, but seldom do you hear people talk about training or practicing movements.  “Workout” tends to infer any form of structured exercise with the sole purpose of expending energy or making you tired.  It focuses on today and perhaps a feeling (tired, sore, or getting a pump, etc.), but has no thought of tomorrow.   Our focus at Fenton Fitness is always on training or practicing movements.  The focus is always on the future–reducing injury risk, becoming more durable, performing better at sports or life, or just feeling better.  Our focus is on skill acquisition, not feeling tired.  Just imagine if we treated education the way we treat exercise.  Think of the difficulty of  learning a new subject every day, rarely repeating something, with the sole purpose of making it difficult.  That would be crazy, yet that is more and more of what we see in the fitness industry.  In workouts, exercises tend to change just for the sake of changing.  In training, the movements are not random and serve a direct purpose, and are therefore performed for a minimum of 3-4 weeks.  We progress these movements by performing them with more control, increasing the number of sets or reps, increasing load, or reducing rest intervals.  Here are some benchmarks that we like to use with some basic exercises to do before progressing on to the next movement.

Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, CSFC, Pn1

Squat Patterns:

Goblet Box Squat- Goal is 50% body weight down to a 12” box for 10 reps (if under 5’2” go to 10”, if over 6’ 2” go to 14” box)

Goblet Split Squat- Goal is 50% body weight for 10 reps/leg

Rear Foot Elevated Goblet Split Squat- Goal is 50% body weight for 10 reps/leg

Rear Foot Elevated Split Squat w/DBs at sides- Goal of 100% body weight for 10 reps/leg

One Leg Squat- Goal of 25% body weight down to 12” box for 5/leg (shorter or taller based off goblet box squat standards)

Front Squat- Goal of bodyweight for 10 reps

BB Back Squat- Goal of 1.5x bodyweight (women) or 2x bodyweight (men) for 2-5 reps

See video demonstration of these exercises here: https://youtu.be/vkrtWkNx8pg.

In the January 2018 issue, Mike O’Hara focuses on strengthening your hamstrings.  Exercises to make your hamstrings stronger, not longer are given along with video demonstration.  Jeff Tirrell tells us how to make incremental changes in our diets to see positive changes, and the spotlight is on Fenton Fitness member, Robin Forstat–a nationally ranked power lifter.
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Muscle Preservation and Fat Loss

NY Times on Fat Loss

One of the adverse effects of diets is the loss of muscle that accompanies a reduction of body fat.  Muscle is the metabolic engine, injury preventative armor, and longevity enhancing elixir of human biology.  Gretchen Reynolds of the New York Times has written an enlightening *article on the best method of losing body fat while holding onto valuable muscle.  The recent research reveals that a program of strength training produces optimal fat loss with significantly less muscle wasting.  Long slow distance exercise combined with caloric restriction accelerates muscle loss.  Your choice of exercise activity can have a profound impact on your physical performance and health.  Read the NY Times article here: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/15/well/move/to-maintain-muscle-and-lose-fat-as-you-age-add-weights.html?_r=0.

After the age of 25, the average American gains a pound of fat and loses a ½ pound of muscle every year.  If no action in taken to reverse this trend, the average American will have gained 25-30 pounds of fat and shed 12-15 pounds of muscle by the time they reach 55 years of age.  This 55 year old will stand on the scale 12 to 18 pounds heavier, but the true alteration in body composition is far more dramatic.

America does not have “an obesity epidemic”, it has a “muscle atrophy epidemic”.  We are not so much over fat as we are under muscled.  The simplistic notion of “losing weight” fails to improve health because it accelerates muscle loss.  Middle age muscle loss is the catalyst for many of the illnesses that plague us later in life.

Michael S. O’Hara, PT, OCS, CSCS

*To Maintain Muscle and Lose Fat as Your Age, Add Weights, Gretchen Reynolds, New York Times, November 15, 2017

Olympic Lifts

Do We Really Need Them?

I had my first introduction to Weightlifting (often referred to as Olympic lifting) in my high school football days using the Bigger Faster Stronger program.  Power Cleans were a staple of this program and the Power Snatch was also introduced to us during a clinic our football coach put together.  Over the last several years, weightlifting movements have made a comeback into many gyms.  These movements include the Snatch (bringing the bar from the floor to overhead in one fluid movement), the Clean & Jerk (bringing the bar from the floor to overhead in two distinct movements), and their derivatives.  Though there are several reasons to include these movements in programs, there are far more reasons, in my professional opinion, not to.

The primary reason one would or should be using Olympic lifting movements is to improve/maximize power output, or Rate of Force Development (RFD).  RFD is a primary determinant of success in many sports.  This is what allows you to accelerate quickly, jump higher/farther, and change direction quickly.  There are volumes of research on the Clean & Jerk, Snatch, and their variations which demonstrate that these movements work very well at improving power and RFD; however, these lifts are not the only means of accomplishing this.  Moreover, there are multiple reasons not to incorporate them:

Time

Weightlifting movements are incredibly technical and take massive amounts of time to learn and perform correctly.  Most successful weightlifters at the international level have spent decades learning and perfecting their craft.  It is not uncommon to see weightlifters performing upwards of 10-12 training sessions per week.  The only other sport I can think of that takes this level of technical prowess is gymnastics.  While this is admirable for those choosing to compete in these sports, the level of time commitment is not practical for the average fitness enthusiast.

Safety

Due to the speed and dynamic nature of the Olympic lifts, there is a much higher probability of something going wrong.  Additionally, the vast majority of the fitness population lacks the requisite mobility and stability to safely get into the required positions to perform these exercises. In some fitness circles, you will see these movements programmed in for very high repetitions.  When this happens, you are ramping up fatigue which makes proper technique/form nearly impossible and minimizes power/RFD adaptation which is the whole point of these exercises. These lifts should be programmed at 1-5 rep sets with 2-5 minute rest intervals between.

Efficiency

For most people, time is a constant barrier to improved fitness.  For competitive athletes, they must balance the demands of sport practice, strength training, conditioning, skill practice, and recovery.  For this reason, the primary goal of a quality program should be to maximize efficiency of training.  Due to the mobility demands and speed of the movements, the warm ups required can take 15-20 minutes.  Combine that with the longer rest periods required and you barely have time to get in enough quality work to see optimal adaptations.  It is not uncommon for a weightlifter to take 90-120 minutes to complete a workout.

You may be asking yourself how to maximize power if you can’t perform the Olympic lifts.  Many people feel these movements are imperative for optimal fitness and performance.  In February of 2017, I traveled to Ohio State University where I heard the head Strength and Conditioning coaches for the New York Jets, San Francisco 49ers, and Arizona Cardinals speak.  None of them use Olympic lifts with their athletes.  If arguably the top athletes in the world don’t need these movements, then I think the rest of the population can get away without using them as well.

Over the next several weeks, I will introduce fourteen exercises that you can use instead to maximize speed, power, and RFD with less risk of injury, less technical skill required, and more efficiency.  Stay tuned for exercise descriptions and video demonstration.

-Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, CFSC, Pn1

Biomarker Reminder

Drs. Evans and Rosenburg are Tufts University researchers interested in the measurable parameters that keep humans healthy and fit over an entire life span.  They have determined that the top four biomarkers are:

  1. Muscle Mass.  The percentage of your body that is made of muscle.
  2. Strength.  Can you use that muscle to push, pull, lift and carry.
  3. Basal Metabolic Rate.  The number of calories your body expends at rest.
  4. Body fat Percentage.  What percentage of your body is composed of fat.

The authors named these top four biomarkers, the decisive tetrad.  They are the prerequisites to maintaining healthy numbers in all of the other essential biomarkers.

  1. Aerobic Capacity
  2. Blood Sugar Tolerance
  3. Cholesterol / HDL ratio
  4. Blood Pressure
  5. Bone Density
  6. Internal Body Temperature Regulation

Drs. Evans and Rosenburg coined the term age related sarcopenia in their 1991 book Biomarkers.  It refers to the gradual loss of muscle mass that occurs as we age.  The keys to aging well, staying durable–no injuries, and maintaining control of all health parameters is maintaining or improving muscle mass / strength and eating properly.  An ongoing program of strength training and nutritional discipline are the foremost components of fitness and health.

Michael S. O’Hara, PT, OCS, CSCS

Movement You Should Master

Push Ups

Modern medicine is keeping us alive longer, so now we need to put some effort into staying lively longer.  Mastering specific movements will improve our quality of life and help us stay independent and injury-free. I have come up with several exercises you can use to make yourself stronger, more durable, and develop a healthier, more functional body.  An exercise that requires no equipment and has bountiful benefits is the Push Up.

Push Ups

Push ups strengthen the pecs, deltoids, triceps.  They also allow free movement of the shoulder blades (unlike the bench press) and build stability in the core if done properly.  There is no need to get overly fancy with these.  If you can’t do a true push up with your chest touching the ground and your core locked in, start by elevating your hands instead of resorting to “girl” push ups on your knees.  Guys should try to work up to 3 sets of 20 reps at least a couple of times/week.  Women should strive for at least 10 reps but by no means need to stop there.  Watch the video and give it a try: https://youtu.be/7oQ-_J8FjEU

-Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, Pn1

Movement You Should Master

Deadlifts

Modern medicine is keeping us alive longer, so now we need to put some effort into staying lively longer.  Mastering specific movements will improve our quality of life and help us stay independent and injury-free. I have come up with several exercises you can use to make yourself stronger, more durable, and develop a healthier, more functional body.  An exercise that I have found to be essential for overall strength is the Deadlift.

Deadlifts

At some point in your week, you will need to pick something up off the ground.  If you have ever moved furniture or loaded your push mower into the back of your car for repairs, you have seen the value in this task.

Deadlifts are an amazing exercise to work the quads, calves, hamstrings, glutes, core, and entire back all the way up to the traps and forearms.  As useful as deadlifts are, they are also one of the most butchered exercises in the gym.  I would highly recommend the help of a skilled professional and/or a mirror before implementing this movement into your routine.  I find that for the general fitness population, 2-3 deadlift variations are all you need for the bulk of your training.  Watch the video and give them a try:

1) One Leg Romanian Deadlift (mimics picking up smaller items around the house or yard; minimizes shear forces on the spine)

2) Hex Bar Deadlifts (great for maximal strength and the occasion when you have to pick up something really heavy) Note: This version offers virtually all of the benefits of a barbell deadlift with slightly more freedom for individual anatomical differences and slightly lower shear forces on your spine.

View video of deadlifts: https://youtu.be/CRbbXOMSeww

-Jeff Tirrell, CSCS, Pn1

Ladder Matters

Moving well is a combination of balance, coordination, strength, and power.  During everyday tasks, you must be able to plant, pivot, and shift your bodyweight over one leg to change directions or decelerate an impact.  Movement is a skill that we all take for granted until the day that it fails us.  “I can’t believe I can’t do that,” is commonly heard from people in physical therapy.  They are unaware of the level of motor control they have lost to age, injury, and a sedentary lifestyle.  The good news is that with some consistent training, most motor control skills can be restored.  For gym members, an excellent method of enhancing movement skills is the agility ladder.

Agility ladders help you move better.  How you move says more about your age than how you look.  Responsive legs that can react to a disruption in balance keep you durable and injury free.  Consistent agility ladder training develops the neural coordination that allows more graceful movement.

Rotation is the movement pattern that creates the distance in your golf drive, the pop in your punch, and the acceleration in your sprint.  Rotation is the missing movement pattern in most training programs.  Ladder drills improve cross body, shoulder, and hip rotation.

Ladders are the rehab bridge that allows the injured athlete to move from a controlled series of movement patterns to the chaos of competition.  Ladders are one of the best power production and injury prevention activities older clients can perform.

As a conditioning method, I call ladder drills “three-dimensional jump rope”.   Move through a few sixty second intervals of continuous ladder drills and your body heats up, respiration increases, and your metabolism is disrupted.  Ramp that up to 90 seconds and check your heart rate.  See video of agility ladder drills: https://youtu.be/CmLXGLeyGfE

Michael S. O’Hara, PT, OCS, CSCS

Heat Or Ice For My Shoulder?

Try Standing Upright

In the gym, at the golf course, and during a visit to the hardware store, I am asked my advice on abolishing shoulder pain.  What everyone wants is the magical exercise, miracle ointment, or newest thermal treatment.  What they need–and what they do not want to hear–is that they have to fix their horrible posture.

Sustained poor posture can alter the function of your shoulder complex.  The shoulder girdle has only one, very small, bone to body connection.  The entire system is an interconnected series of muscles and ligaments.  Sustained slouched over postures create a faulty length-tension relationship in these structures that places adverse stress and strain on the four joints of the shoulder and the nerves in the neck and upper back.

OMG I sit lmGm (like my GrandMa).  

Shoulder posture pain problems are happening earlier.  I do not know if it is more tech toys, less physical education in schools, or a change in youth activity levels, but in the physical therapy clinic we are seeing younger people with older people postural shoulder pain.  They sit on the treatment table in extremely slouched over positions and are unable to pull themselves up into a correct position.  Most are unconvinced that how they sit and stand could be the generator of their pain problem.

What exercises can I do?

Stronger muscles will help restore posture.  The shoulder evolved to pull, lift, and carry.  The muscles that keep the shoulder strong and happy are in the back of the shoulder.  They hold the shoulder in a healthy position on the body.  Most of us never perform any pulling or lifting activities other than hoisting our laptop or toting our smart phone.   Making your shoulder girdle muscles stronger will help, but being mindful of your posture during the day is the most important factor.  Physical Therapist and US Soccer Team Trainer Sue Falsone says “You can’t out rep poor posture.”

Start with how you work and live.

Eight hours a day for five days a week equals 2080 hours of computer / desk time a year for the average office worker.  Add in a daily one hour car commute and another two hours of television a day and we push the Monday through Friday slump numbers to 2860 hours a year (120 days).  We have spent millions on state of the art chairs, elevated monitors, slanting keyboards, wrist rests, and lumbar supports.  Office modifications, while well intentioned and generally a good idea, cannot compete with 2860 hours (this number is probably low) of sitting in a year.  In order to fight against the postural stress that creates pain, we need to get up and move.

Recent research on prolonged sitting has demonstrated that the amount of movement we need to stay healthy is greater than we once thought.  To combat the adaptive changes of prolonged sitting, it is suggested you get up and move every twenty minutes.  Set a timer, enlist the help of your coworkers, and work at this every workday for a month.  I believe you will be surprised by the results.

Michael S. O’Hara, PT, OCS, CSCS

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