Drs. Evans and Rosenburg are Tufts University researchers interested in the measurable parameters that keep humans healthy and fit over an entire life span. They have determined that the top four biomarkers are:
- Muscle Mass. The percentage of your body that is made of muscle.
- Strength. Can you use that muscle to push, pull, lift and carry.
- Basal Metabolic Rate. The number of calories your body expends at rest.
- Body fat Percentage. What percentage of your body is composed of fat.
The authors named these top four biomarkers, the decisive tetrad. They are the prerequisites to maintaining healthy numbers in all of the other essential biomarkers.
- Aerobic Capacity
- Blood Sugar Tolerance
- Cholesterol / HDL ratio
- Blood Pressure
- Bone Density
- Internal Body Temperature Regulation
Drs. Evans and Rosenburg coined the term age related sarcopenia in their 1991 book Biomarkers. It refers to the gradual loss of muscle mass that occurs as we age. The keys to aging well, staying durable–no injuries, and maintaining control of all health parameters is maintaining or improving muscle mass / strength and eating properly. An ongoing program of strength training and nutritional discipline are the foremost components of fitness and health.
Michael S. O’Hara, PT, OCS, CSCS
More Research On Effects of Exercise and NSAID Medications
Millions of Americans take a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) every day. Many use these over the counter drugs to reduce the discomfort / pain of fitness activities. Big Pharma marketing makes the use of these chemicals look harmless. In the commercial, the lady pops three pills and glides effortlessly through her run. The basketball player takes his gel capsules and bounds through the game with his buddies. Most of us view these drugs as harmless and beneficial. Ongoing studies have shown that the use of NSAIDs as a pre-exercise activity preparation can limit your muscle recovery and damage your internal organs. A recent New York Times *article by Gretchen Reynolds should scare everyone away from medicating with NSAIDs prior to a training session.
Exercise induced inflammation is a critical biochemical process that helps us recover from a bout of training. You do not get fitter while training, you get fitter during recovery from a bout of exercise. The inflammatory biochemicals that make you sore and stiff after a vigorous exercise session are called prostaglandins. NSAIDs work by interrupting the chemical assembly line that makes various prostaglandins. No prostaglandin production means you have no delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), so you feel better. Prostaglandins are the chemical signal that tells your muscle cells to get busy repairing and reinforcing your skeletal muscle cells. No prostaglandins, no beneficial adaptation during recovery. Take a NSAID before training and it’s like you never exercised at all.
Prostaglandin production creates vasodilation– more blood can get where it needs to go during a session of exercise. The studies cited in the New York Times article have demonstrated that inhibited prostaglandin production creates diminished blood flow to your kidneys. Limited kidney function dramatically blunts progress toward all fitness goals. It is very difficult to run further, get stronger, or become leaner while undergoing dialysis.
Take the time to read the article by Gretchen Reynolds and rethink that pre-exercise NSAID protocol. You can view the article here: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/05/well/move/bring-on-the-exercise-hold-the-painkillers.html?
*Bring On the Exercise, Hold the Painkillers, Gretchen Reynolds, New York Times, July 5, 2017
Barbara O’Hara, RPh.
Aging Muscles and Exercise
Fast Reaction and Helpful Hormones
New technology has produced some surprising information on the cellular response of muscle to various types of exercise. Super blood analyzers and computers have enabled scientists to monitor gene expression and hormonal release in muscle cells during and after sessions of exercise. The information from this research is revolutionizing our understanding of optimal exercise prescription for health and longevity. It appears that older individuals derive the most beneficial muscle cell response with fairly intense interval training sessions. Please take the time to read Gretchen Reynolds article in the New York Times, The Best Exercise for Aging Muscles.
Dr. Martin Gibala, a professor at the kinesiology department at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario recently released an outstanding book, The One Minute Workout. Dr. Gibala explains the science behind high intensity interval training (HIIT) and why it is safe and effective for older fitness participants.
Skeletal muscles produce beneficial biochemicals called myokines that stimulate a response in cells throughout the body. Myokines are a fairly new scientific discovery and we have only recently begun to understand their remarkable effect on human physiology. Myokines enhance blood vessel development, promote beneficial hormone levels, stimulate greater mitochondria production, and improve the metabolism of fat. In the older individual, myokine levels are enhanced with strength training and high intensity interval training.
The best method of creating more of the beneficial myokine biochemistry is to consistently perform some progressive resistance training followed by a brief but intense interval training session. This regimen of training is similar to that of track athletes involved in sprinting. These athletes have high levels of muscle mass and very low body fat levels.
Michael S. O’Hara, PT, OCS, CSCS
Read the NY Times article here: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/23/well/move/the-best-exercise-for-aging-muscles.html